Ross School - Senior Project 2006-07

Student: Ezra Neuman

Mentor: Dr. Hugh McGuinness

Consultant: Howard Blatt

Domain: Science


Title: The Ethics and Science of Steroid Use

Description: For my senior project, I wrote a paper discussing anabolic steroids and their use amongst athletes, both professional and collegiate. The paper gives an in depth look at how steroids work, what they do in the body, the risks of their use, and whether or not steroids should be allowed in sports.


The paper itself consisted of 6 parts. These parts being the introduction, a brief history of steroids, a science portion, an ethical portion, a general discussion and conclusion, and the appendices. The science and ethical portions were the two main parts of the paper. They include how steroids work, the positive and negative effects of their use, pro-steroid arguments, the refutations of those arguments and other sports related events. The general discussion serves as my conclusion to the paper, it is where I make my final statements about steroids and how they should not be allowed in sports. The appendices to the paper are the steroid policies that the International Olympic Committee and the National Football League use.


The Science of Steroids

Sports and Steroids

General Discussion



This paper was very important to me and to my future. I needed a project that could incorporate all of my interests into one and still be a substantial project. My passions for writing, sports, and argument were all satisfied throughout this project. The paper came out very well and as I had planned. It is informative, well-written, flows smoothly, and addresses all sports related steroid issues. As for my future, this paper has given me the experience of planning and writing an important paper, which I know I will need no matter what field I go into.

Annotated Works Cited

"Anabolic Steroids." CESAR. 2 May 2005. University of Maryland. Viewed 1 Jan. 2007 <>. This site gave an in depth look at many of the psychological damages that steroids can lead to.

Anabolic Steroids." NIDA for Teens. 19 June-July 2005. National Institute of Health. Viewed 20 Sept. 2006 <
facts_ster1.asp>.This site offered a very basic overview of steroids and many risks that are associated with their use. However, no risks were explained. Also, it mentions briefly how they work in the body.

"Anabolic Steroids." NIDA Research Report Sites. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Viewed 28 Dec. 2006 <
phd561/st3.aspx>. Another overview of steroids with some information on how the health risks occur.

"Anabolic Steroids." Steroid.Com. 2002. Viewed 1 Jan. 2007 <>. A pro-steroid website, was interesting because it told nothing of the health risks. It gave information on how steroids work, but no side effects.

Bailey, Regina. "How Steroid Hormones Work." About.Com. Viewed 10 Sept. 2006 <>. To understand why steroids are harmful, one must understand how steroid hormones work, and what excess hormones can do. This site was very helpful with that information.

Blatt, Howard. E-Mail interview. 4 Jan. 2007.This was an interview written by my outside community member. It helped me with the ethical portion of my paper, and gave me a clear argument that I could use.

"Cigarette Use Among High School Students." CDC. 6 July 2004. Department of Health and Human Services. 4 Jan. 2007 <
preview/mmwrhtml/mm5323a1.htm>. This site gave me statistics on how many high school students smoke cigarettes. I was able to compare this number to high school steroid users, and see which was the bigger problem.

Chu, Joe Hing. "Anti-Aging Effect of Qijong and Sex Hormones in Male and Female Patients." Alternative Healing. 17 Nov. 2004. Viewed 20 Oct. 2006 <
anti_aging_effect_of_qigong_and_sex_hormones.htm>. This website was important to my understanding of how steroid hormones affect the body, when anabolic steroids are not taken. This site gave information on how steroid hormones affect mood and the physical body.

Cluett, Jonathan. "Cortisone Shots." About.Com. 2006. Health on the Net Foundation. Viewed 10 Oct. 2006 <
paindrugs/a/cortisone.htm>. Cortisone is often used by athletes to help alleviate pain. It is also a very important chemical in the body and this site gave a lot of information about why and where it is secreted from.

Collins, Rick. Legal Muscle: Anabolics in America. East Meadow, New York: Legal Muscle, Inc., 2002. Written by a former steroid user, this book offered one of the two pro-steroid arguments that I used in my paper. This book was great for trying to understand why athletes would use steroids.

Downey, Kevin. "Win for Angels, Huge Loss for MLB." Sports TV. 29 Oct. 2002. Media Life. 3 Jan. 2007 <
news2002/oct02/oct28/2_tues/news2tuesday.html>. This was a small article written about a topic that was irrelevant to my paper, however it had a fact in it that I used in my paper.

Fahey, Thomas D. "Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Mechanism of Action and Effects on Performance." Mar.-Apr. 1998. Exercise Physiology Laboratory. Viewed 12 Sept. 2006 <>. This website gave all of the physical effects from anabolic steroid use.

Getz, Bruce. "Anabolic Steroids." Hughston Health Alert. The Hughston Foundation. Viewed 10 Nov. 2006 <>. This was just another website that was useful in finding explanations for the risks and side effects.

"IOC Anti-Doping Rules." 2004. International Olympic Committee. Viewed 1 Jan. 2007.<
2004%20USOC%   20Anti-Doping%20Policies.FINAL.pdf>.This was the official document of the Olympic anti-doping rules. This was useful because I was able to site specific consequences that athletes face when they are found using steroids.

Izenberg, Neil. "Endocrine System." Teens Health. 2007. Nemours Foundation. Viewed 12 Oct. 2006 <>. Steroids affect the body in two ways. One of the ways is by affecting the endocrine system, and telling the body to produce more hormones. This site told me how the endocrine system actually works.

Moore, David L. "School Tackles Alarming Subject: Steroid Use." USA Today. 5 Apr. 2005. Viewed 4 Jan. 2007 <
2005-05-04-hs-steroids-cover_x.htm>. This site gave me statistics on high school students and steroids that I used to compare with high school students and cigarettes.

"Policy on Anabolic Steroids and Related Substances." National Football League. 2006. National Football League. Viewed 1 Jan. 2007 <
pdfs/RulesAndRegs/BannedSubstances.pdf>. This is the National Football League’s policy on steroids. This was useful because I could site specific consequences that athletes face when they are found using steroids.

Roberts, Anthony, and Brian Clapp. Anabolic Steroids: Ultimate Research Guide. Vol. 1. Montgomery, Texas: Anabolic Information, LLC, 2005. This book offered the other pro-steroid argument that I used in my paper. It also gave  a lot of information about how steroids work and what the differences were between types of steroids.

"Steroids." In the Know Zone. 2001. Syndistar Inc. Viewed 20 Oct. 2006 <>. This site gave a general overview of steroids and how they work.

"Steroids." Student Information. 22 Aug.-Sept. 2006. McGill University. Viewed 15 Oct. 2006<
This site helped to explain the side effects of steroid use.

Community Member (Details)

My community member was Howard Blatt, a close family friend and former sportswriter for the Daily News. He was able to critique my paper as well as offer his insights about the topic of integrity in sports. During his career, he wrote many articles concerning steroids in baseball and was extremely helpful for this project. Although not working for the Daily News currently, he still is very interested in sports and makes sure he keeps himself current in the subjects. Unfortunately he was recently involved in a car crash and has not been able to read my final product. He did edit portions of the paper itself and he understands its intentions and direction. He is very knowledgeable about integrity in relation to sports and was very helpful in defeating arguments made by steroid users.