Ross School - Senior Project 2007-08
Student: Tucker Hurley
Mentor: Carrie Clark
Title: Politicide & The Revolution
As America stumbles into the twenty-first century with an unpopular war it must deal with, it continues to descend into an age of uncertainty and fear. I have chosen to analyze political and historical aspects of America that must be avoided and/or changed if this nation is to survive. While people, governments and nations make mistakes, mistakes only exist for us to acknowledge and become stronger by correcting. My project is an analysis of controversial actions by the U.S., and a reminder of America's much needed reform. Both a caveat, ultimatum, and a plea, let this serve as an attempt to open the eyes of Americans to the wrongs that must be righted.
Throughout making this product I have learned many valuable skills such as effective information searching, how to use first hand sources (such as President Reagan's National Security Decision Directives), and how to write a coherent argument.
Politics, history, and social criticism have always enthralled me. Yet this project presented me with a unique opportunity to do more than simply read what others have said, but to clearn my throat and speak up for myself and put myself to the test in the world of academia. From the start of hearing "senior project" in the 11th grade I had a definate mindset that my project would somehow incorporate international politics, and history. However, aside from using scandals such as The Iran-Contra Affair, and U.S. economic aid to Israel, I didn't know what I wanted to prove, or even what I wanted to say.
When I first started this project, I had no idea what my unifying theme was. As the project continued I kicked my ass over and over again because I was doing tons of research that I felt I wasn't putting into an effective theme, and thus creating a terrible essay. I would continue telling myself that "I'll get it eventually, I'll get it soon", only to find out that I wasn't. Sometime before Christmas break , howeveer, I had an epiphany several minutes before a pivotal conversation with my mentor that put my project on the right track. After having read countless articles, dozens of books, and two full-congressional reports (on Iran-Contra, and 9/11) I realized that what I was trying to get across. J.R.R. Tolkien once said that "Not all who wander are lost" and after all this tedious research, I had wandered into a thesis that I would not have been able to put my finger on if I had not wandered throughout researching.
I think this is the most valuable thing I've learned throughout the process of senior project. Instead of blind research, you need something to say before you start looking up facts . Just as a writer needs his thesis, a lawyer needs an appropriate sentence to aim for, and a politic needs political "goals" to work for. In the future, I know I need to need to treat essays as if they were conversations. Describe an idea through a thesis, and then sell it to the reader through a combination of history, data, and rhetoric.
Writing is an every day part of my life, because it focuses on one of our most basic talents, communication. I'll take from this project a vast amount of political information, research data, a well tempered political views, and of course the essay itself.
Bush, George H. . Proclamation 6518 – Grant of Executive Clemency. 24 Dec 1992.
Esposito, Richard and Ross, Brian. C.I.A.'s Harsh Interrogation Techniques Described. 18 November 2005. Viewed 23 December 2007. <http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/Investigation/story?id=1322866>.
Excerpt of Howard Teicher Affidavit. No. 93241. United States District Court Southern District of Florida. 31 Jan. 1995. Daily News Headline. Information Clearing House. N/A, N/A. 5 Jan. 2008.
Harel, Amos. "Iranian Official Admits Tehran Supplied Missiles to Hezbollah." Haaretz. 05 Aug. 2006. 10 Sept. 2008 <http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=746631>.
Isseroff, Ami. President Harry S. Truman and U.S. Support For Israeli Statehood. Copyright 2003. Viewed 2 January 2008. <http://www.mideastweb.org/us_supportforstate.htm>
Johnston, David. New York Times: Weinberger Faces 5 Counts In Iran-Contra Indictment. 17 June 1992. Viewed 30 November 2007. <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE2DC133EF934A25755C0A964958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print>.
Kissinger, Dr. Henry. Press Conference. 12 October 1973.
Lilenthal, Dr. Alfred M. . “Remembering General George Marshall's Clash With Clark Clifford Over Premature Recognition of Israel.” Washington Report on Middle-Eastern Affairs. June 1999. Pages 49-50.
Mark, Clyde R. . Congressional Research Service Issue for Congress: “Israel: U.S. Foreign Assistance.” Updated 2005.
Martsching, Brad. Iran-Iraq War and Waterway Claims. May 1998. 28 September 2007. <http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/iraniraq.htm>
Mearsheimer, John J., and Stephen M. Walt. The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. 1st ed. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. 26-30.
Murphy, M.E.. “The History of Guantanamo Bay 1496 - 1694.” 5 January 1953. Viewed 20 December 2007. <https://www.cnic.navy.mil/Guantanamo/AboutGTMO/gtmohistgeneral/gtmohistmurphy/gtmohistmurphyintro>.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries . Compton's by Britannica. 2007. Encyclopĺdia Britannica Online School Edition. 16 Dec. 2007 <http://0-school.eb.com.opac.esboces.org:80/all/comptons/article-9276213>.
Pearson, Robert. "Peace Process / Arms Sales." 12 Apr. 1985.
Reagan, Ronald W. The United States. National Security Council. National Security Decision Directive 100. 19 Dec. 1991(Partially Declassfied). 12 Oct. 2007 <http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-100.htm>.
Reagan, Ronald. White House Press Meeting Regarding the Resignation of Robert McFarlane, and the Appointment of John Poindexter. 4 December 1985.
Sklar, Barry., and Hagen M. Virginia. “Agreement Between The United States and Cuba for the Lease of Land for Coaling and Naval Stations.” The Avalon Project At Yale Law School. Viewed 19 December 2007. <http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/cuba/cuba002.htm>.
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).Transfer of Major Conventional Weapons: Sorted by Recipient. Deals with Deliveries or orders made for 1980 to 1990. Viewed 2 October 2007.
The United Nations General Assembly. “The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181.” 29 November 1947. Viewed 22 December 2007. <http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/un/res181.htm>.
United States. Cong. House. Select Committee to Investigate Cover Arms Transactions with Iran. Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair: with Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views. 100th Cong., 1st sess. Washington: GPO, 1987.
Triple Suicide in Guantanamo Camp. British Broadcasting Company. 11 June 2006.
Vogel, Steve. "Afghan Prisoners Going to Gray Area." www.washingtonpost.com. 9 Jan. 2002. Washington Post Staff Writer. 29 Dec. 2007 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A16565-2002Jan8?language=printer>.
Weiner, Tim. Legacy of Ashes: the History of the C.I.A. New York: Random House, 2007. 398-399.
Whitehouse.gov. “Biography of Jimmy Carter.” Presidents. Viewed 15 September 2007. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/jc39.html>
Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Random House, 2006. 246-247.
Zayas, Alfred. “Status of Guantanamo Bay And The Status of The Detainees.” Viewed 21 December 2007. <http://www.alfreddezayas.com/lectures.shtml>.
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of The United States. New York. Harper Perennial. 1995.
Community Member (Details)
A vital part of my process was the assistance and conversations I had with Mr. Jack MacArthur. I first met Mr. M as a student here at Ross when he would act as a substitute for history teachers, and he opened my eyes to many topics I used, and would like to have used if I had more time. Because Mr. M is so well versed in military history, political history, and human rights, his suggestions and critique helped me during pivotal edits before my final drafts. I'm pleased to say that Mr. M has not only been a terrific mentor, but has also become a good friend who I do not hesitate to email news articles, and thoughts on politics.