Ross School - Senior Projects 2011


Student: Ross M. Kadri

Mentor: Matthew Aldrege

Domain(s): History, English and Literature, Philosophy, Military Art and Science






Title: A General Is A General Is A General

Description: Mentor:  Matthew Aldredge

Consultants:  Kenneth Fowler, Kenneth Sacks

A General Is A General Is A General was an investigation of how honor, ethics, morals, generalship, and military science are  notated as, in Eastern, Western, Ancient, and Contemporary cultures.  Because a society's culture may differ from one foreign to it, I deduced that; there must too be differences and similarities between military philosophies depending upon the culture under which they are codified, breached, exploited, and/ or fulfilled.  So I decided to read as much as I could (and time would allow) on any military subjects from Spring 2010 to Fall 2010.  I also tried to draw on some former reading that might've been related to the sentiment, and the ebb and flow of my book.  I hope my book is judicious in mentioning relevant events, texts and ideas, that although may not exist homogeneously in modern militaries, at least have shaped and influenced modern militaries to a large degree.




A General is a General is a General






During Dr. SchadeÕs eleventh grade science class we learned about nuclear fission and fusion (Spring 2010) I became increasingly interested about why and how the human race still existed.  I immediately decided I should list ten different leaders who were renowned and accomplished strategists and leaders of character.  These events were what led me to become interested in the codification of warfare, and military culture.


The challenge was that I ended with a list of thirteen or fifteen political and military leaders.  The next step was to order my books online.  So as soon as I received a book in the mail I would read it in a week to a week and a half, depending on the length.  As I read anything that stood out to my curiosity and interests, I would tear the page on which it was written.


In an independent study last spring I began working on my senior project by reading ten books for part of my research that would also be applicable to my summer research, those books are: Fifteen Stars: MacArthur, Marshall, Eisenhower, The Art of War (Machiavelli), Bushido: The Soul of Japan, Grant and Lee: A Study in Personality and Generalship, Thermopylae, Exile and the Kingdom, The Art of War (Sun Tzu), The Conquest of Gaul, The Lords of Discipline, The Nature of Alexander.  Over the summer I read: The Will To Power, Night Flight, Absolutely American, The Lance And The Shield, Weapons and Hope, The Misanthrope, Bartleby The Scrivener, Heart of Darkness, Carnage And Culture, On War, The Warriors Reflections On Men In Battle, and Once An Eagle. I am currently reading A History Of Warfare.  In all the books that I read, I tore pages that concerned my paperÕs focus and theme.  In the past couple weeks I tabbed those books with sticky tabs.   This has helped me return to all the pages that I am interested in using in the structure of my essaysÕ discussions.  I have reviewed various concepts surrounding military ethics in ancient, contemporary, western and eastern cultures, such as:  humanism, automatism, courage, leadership, altruism, tyranny, military technology, the warrior ethic, MAD, Clausewitzian tactics, Sun Tzu's ideas about being liquid and multifaceted, pacifism, and dissent's place in enhancing military culture.  I have done so by comparing and contrasting different cultures, militaries and leaders, in attempts to describe a sort of universal sentiment about warfare, and its culture.


Works Cited or Works Consulted


„1) Renault, Mary. The Nature of Alexander.

„2) Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, Walter Arnold Kaufmann, and R. J. Hollingdale.

„3) Melville, Herman. Bartleby the Scrivener

„4) Nitobe, Inazo. Bushido: the Soul of Japan

„5) Cartledge, Paul. Thermopylae

„6) Dyson, Freeman J. Weapons and Hope

„7) Fuller, J. F. C. Grant and Lee: a Study in Personality and Generalship.

„8) Saint-ExupŽry, Antoine De. Night Flight.

„9) Conrad, Joseph. Heart Of Darkness.

„10) Camus, Albert, and Carol Cosman. Exile and the Kingdom: Stories.

„11) Tzu, Sun. Sun Tzu: the Art of War.

„12) Machiavelli, Niccol—. The Art of War.

„13) Hanson, Victor Davis. Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power

„14) Weintraub, Stanley. Fifteen Stars: Intersected Lives : MacArthur, Marshall, Eisenhower.

„15) Lipsky, David. Absolutely American: Four Years at West Point.

„16) Conroy, Pat. The Lords of Discipline.

„17) Utley, Robert M. The Lance And The Shield, The Life And Times of Sitting Bull.

„18) Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.

„19) Gray, J. Glenn. The Warriors; Reflections on Men in Battle.

„20) Myrer, Anton. Once an Eagle.

„21) Keegan, John. A History of Warfare.

22) Machiavelli, Niccol— 0300. The Prince.

„23) Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. Ecce Homo

„24) Vonnegut, Kurt. Slaughterhouse Five. NY: Dell, 1991. Print.

„25) Roosevelt, Theodore. "Citizenship in a Republic: The Man in the Arena

„26) Lee, Robert E. "Farewell Address General Robert E. Lee Gettysburg Pennsylvania American Civil War History PA."

„27) Singer, P.W. "War of the Machines: A Dramatic Growth in the Military Use of Robots Brings Evolution in Their Conception." Scientific American 30 June 2010. Web.

„28) Lincoln, Abraham. "Abraham Lincoln's First Inaugural Address."

„29) Burgess, Anthony. A Clockwork Orange. New York: Norton, 1988. Print.

„30) Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Knopf, 1992. Print.

„31) Hastings, Michael. "The Runaway General." Rolling Stone June-July 2010. Web.

„32) Bowden, Mark. "The Professor of War." Vanity Fair May 2010. Web.

„33) Mussolini, Benito. "Benito Mussolini Quotes - Every Anarchist Is a Baffled –

„34) Lance, Peter. "The Spy Who Came For The Heat." Playboy. Web.

 35) Baker, Peter. "A Wartime Chief's Steep Learning Curve." The New York Times 28 Aug. 2010. Print.Shanker, Thom. "Win Wars? Today's General Must Also Meet, Manage, Placate, Politick and Do P.R." The New York Times 13 Aug. 2010: 11. Print.

„36) Bumiller, Elisabeth. "We Have Met the Enemy: PowerPoint." The New York Times 27 Apr. 2010. Print.

„Gellman, Barton. "Locked And Loaded." 30 Sept. 2010: 24-33. Web.

Why We Fight. Dir. Eugene Jarecki. Prod. Eugene Jarecki and Susannah Shipman. By Eugene Jarecki.

 37) Apocalypse Now. Dir. Francis Ford Coppola. Perf. Marlon Brando, Martin Sheen, Robert Duvall.

„38) "Defence Spending in a Time of Austerity; The Cost of Weapons." The Economist (US) 28 Aug. 2010: 20-22. Print.

„39) "After Iraq." The Economist (US) 28 Aug. 2010. Web.

„"The Reckoning." The Economist (US) 28 Aug. 2010: 37-38. Web.

„40) "Of Course I Don't Want to Be President." The Economist (US) 28 Aug. 2010: 38-39. Web.

„ "Game Resumed." The Economist (US) 28 Aug. 2010: 39. Web.

„41) Chivers, C.J., and Terry Gross. "The AK-47: 'The Gun' That Changed The Battlefield." Fresh Air. NPR.

„42) Chivers, C. J. The Gun. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010. Print.

„"MBAs Are for Wusses; Israeli Entrepreneurs." The Economist (US) 28 Aug. 2010: 54. Print.

„43) "What Rumsfeld Got Right." The Atlantic. Web. July-Aug. 2008.

„44) Hitler, Adolf, and Abraham H. Foxman. Mein Kampf.

 45) Molire, Jean-Baptiste. The Misanthrope. New York: Dover Publications, 1992. Print.

„46) Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, and H. L. Mencken. The Antichrist.

 47) Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, and Walter Arnold. Kaufmann. Thus Spoke Zarathustra: a Book for All and None. New York: Modern Library, 1995. Print.

„48) Jerido, Earl. "Earl Jerido Interview For A General Is A General." Telephone interview. 13 Nov. 2010.. 2010.

„49) Harry, Paul, and Robert Ratcliffe. "Veterans Day Interview For A General Is A General Is A General." Personal interview. 11 Nov. 2010


Outside Consultant

 (Sgt. Ret.)  Mr. Ken Rick Fowler